Characterising coals for coke production and assessing coke

by Pierre Jordan

A project report submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment,
University of the Witwatersrand, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
of Masters of Science in Engineering.
Johannesburg, 2006

Predicting coke quality based on coal petrography, rheorogy and coke petrography



Click to access 39664974.pdf

Petrological characterization of coal: an evolving science

by J.M. Richards*, G. Naude*, S.J. Theron*, and M.McCullum*

* Mineral Processing, Metallurgy Research and Development, Exxaro Resources Ltd., Pretoria, South Africa.
© The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2013. ISSN 2225-6253. Paper received Sep. 2013; revised paper received Oct. 2013.

For most of the 20th century optical petrography has been the primary petrological and mineralogical tool used to characterize coal.
The development of quantitative SEM-based techniques, e.g. QEMSCAN®, for coal began only about a decade ago. The application of these techniques for coal lagged behind other commodities, but they are currently being developed with the aim to provide ‘one
complete analysis’ for coal. Quantitative SEM-based techniques are
supplemented by quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Recent indications are that these more modern techniques cannot replace the ‘standard’ petrographic and chemical evaluations, but rather complement them where and when required. The great advantage of quantitative SEM-based techniques is that they are very rapid, with the result that large volumes of samples can be processed on a routine basis. This is ideal for coal type identification, since theresults can be used in the creation of ‘intelligent’ composites. This can lead to the more speedy evaluation of coal deposits by reducing the number of samples on which detailed metallurgical and characterization test work is required, without an increase in the overall statistical error of the resource model.
Coal petrography, however, remains important for the prediction of the coking characteristics of certain coals and coal products. As a consequence it is therefore important that any coal laboratory be able to produce data with confidence. This requires strict quality control and assurance protocols that adhere to international standards.


Click to access v113n11p865.pdf

Installation of the Pressure Regulated Oven (PROven) system at existing coke plants

by F. Huhn, F. Krebber, K. Überschär, J. Kühn-Gajdzik (ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions, Germany)


By application of the pressure regulation system PROven traditional coke oven batteries can be
operated nearly emission free. Therefore even the most stringent environmental requirements can be met.



Click to access pressure_regulated_oven_proven__uhde_estad_summary.pdf

SCOPE 21 – Next Generation Coke Making Technology

Research and development of new cokemaking process (SCOPE21) was conducted in Japan from 1994 to 2003 by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF). Pilot plant scale test of SCOPE21 process was conducted successfully and targets of the project were confirmed. SCOPE21-type new coke oven battery was constructed at Nippon Steel Oita works and the operation of new coke plant started in 2008. The coke production capacity is 1 million ton per year. At present, high quality coke has been produced in this process using high blending ratio (over 50%) of non- or slightly-caking coal.



Emerging Technologies for Iron and Steelmaking

The iron and steel industry has undergone a technological revolution in the last 40 years. In a relatively short time, the North American industry has observed the complete disappearance of basic open hearth processing, as well as the wide spread adoption of continuous casting and the near complete shift of long product production to the electric arc furnace sector. These and other developments have dramatically affected the way steel is made, the price, quality and range of products generated, and changed the basic structure of the industry.

Cokemaking Process


This text is recommended to those who approach the coke production facilities in order to acquire the basic information. Through a series of slides, the operation of a coke is illustrated. There are also some books on the topic that can be found on the market.

See more




by   Stefano Peluffo – Managing Director of O.M.E.V.  SrL – Vado Ligure (Savona) –  Italy



O.M.E.V. srl  (Officine Meccaniche Vadesi) is a company specialized in the design and manufacturing of equipment for coke oven batteries, located at Vado Ligure, 50 km West of Genoa, Italy.  With more than 50 years of experience in design and construction of coke machines, responding to new environmental legislations on the prevention of industrial emissions, has dedicated its research and study to the creation of a new system available to reduce emissions, almost nothing.

Charging Car has the most polluting impact because coal just loaded in the oven, starts his distillation process and consequently it produces toxic gases destinated to be aspirated by stand pipe and collecting main and finally conveyed to dedicated plants for later treatments.

The most critical phase with a peak of emissions during loading cycle is the coupling between charging telescope and the oven charging hole’s frame.

Often this is a consequence of a misalignment between the charging telescope and the oven charging hole due to the deviation of the theoretical measure of the oven charging holes that, following an expansion of  the oven charging plane, are not in their original location moving in some cases their position until 50 mm.

The misalignment causes the incorrect coupling and the bad gas containment, bringing the dispersion into the environment.

Systems used until now, provide a rigid connection of charging groups  to the Charging Car. This solution to function needs a perfect position of the oven charging holes on the base of theoretical measure , with a good alignment with the telescope, but the increase of the difference between the real position of the oven charging holes and theoretical measure, decrease the performances of the system, and it does not comply with the latest EU regulations on emissions standard.

The new system created by O.M.E.V. has the obiectif to compensate misalignments of the oven charging holes collocated on the charge plane to ensure the perfect alignment of all the group, not only of the telescope but also of the lids cleaner and lifter and chargin hole’s frame cleaner allowed it to work correctly under the best conditions and to reduce emissions almost nothing.

Charging car 1 JPEG

Tools centering new systems on oven charging holes

The device is composed of trolleys operated by hydraulic cylinders with transducers position which allows each  group ( composed of coal hopper, screw feeder, telescope, lids cleaner and lifter and charging hole’s frame cleaner) to be available to move, with values measured and pre-set, aligning itself to the position of the charging hole, with a displacement about ± 50 mm flows along of the main axes X and Y compared to the theoretical position.

This solution is applied individually for each charge group, even if the misalignments of the oven charging holes are differents.

The system not only makes a position compensation with respect to the axes X and Y, the system it is also available to make a compensation of any altimetric differences of holes. The vertical position of oven charging holes must not exceed ± 50 mm compared to the theoretical position.

Thanks to this device it is possible:

  • To adhere telescopes perfectly on the charging hole’s frames, to obtain an excellent loading;
  • To extract lids  perfectly centered on axis;
  • To perform cleaning of lids in ideal conditions;
  • To perform cleaning of  the charging hole’s frame, by cleaning tools perfectly centered to obtain an excellent result;
  • To perform automatically sealing of covers in ideal conditions where the cast rings are perfectly in the line with the location to seal and especially both parties (lid and frame) are fully cleaned by incrustation

Charging car JPEG   

System ( with patent application) moving operation of all devices 




O.M.E.V. S.r.l.
Officina Meccanica Elettrica Vadese
Via Piave, 122 | 17047 Vado Ligure (SV) | Italy
Tel. +39 019 880162 +39 019 884091
Fax +39 019 883977