Coal Carbonization and Coke Oven Plant

Course: Chemical Technology (Organic) – Lecture 2 





Emerging Technologies for Iron and Steelmaking

The iron and steel industry has undergone a technological revolution in the last 40 years. In a relatively short time, the North American industry has observed the complete disappearance of basic open hearth processing, as well as the wide spread adoption of continuous casting and the near complete shift of long product production to the electric arc furnace sector. These and other developments have dramatically affected the way steel is made, the price, quality and range of products generated, and changed the basic structure of the industry.

Cokemaking Process


This text is recommended to those who approach the coke production facilities in order to acquire the basic information. Through a series of slides, the operation of a coke is illustrated. There are also some books on the topic that can be found on the market.

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by   Stefano Peluffo – Managing Director of O.M.E.V.  SrL – Vado Ligure (Savona) –  Italy



O.M.E.V. srl  (Officine Meccaniche Vadesi) is a company specialized in the design and manufacturing of equipment for coke oven batteries, located at Vado Ligure, 50 km West of Genoa, Italy.  With more than 50 years of experience in design and construction of coke machines, responding to new environmental legislations on the prevention of industrial emissions, has dedicated its research and study to the creation of a new system available to reduce emissions, almost nothing.

Charging Car has the most polluting impact because coal just loaded in the oven, starts his distillation process and consequently it produces toxic gases destinated to be aspirated by stand pipe and collecting main and finally conveyed to dedicated plants for later treatments.

The most critical phase with a peak of emissions during loading cycle is the coupling between charging telescope and the oven charging hole’s frame.

Often this is a consequence of a misalignment between the charging telescope and the oven charging hole due to the deviation of the theoretical measure of the oven charging holes that, following an expansion of  the oven charging plane, are not in their original location moving in some cases their position until 50 mm.

The misalignment causes the incorrect coupling and the bad gas containment, bringing the dispersion into the environment.

Systems used until now, provide a rigid connection of charging groups  to the Charging Car. This solution to function needs a perfect position of the oven charging holes on the base of theoretical measure , with a good alignment with the telescope, but the increase of the difference between the real position of the oven charging holes and theoretical measure, decrease the performances of the system, and it does not comply with the latest EU regulations on emissions standard.

The new system created by O.M.E.V. has the obiectif to compensate misalignments of the oven charging holes collocated on the charge plane to ensure the perfect alignment of all the group, not only of the telescope but also of the lids cleaner and lifter and chargin hole’s frame cleaner allowed it to work correctly under the best conditions and to reduce emissions almost nothing.

Charging car 1 JPEG

Tools centering new systems on oven charging holes

The device is composed of trolleys operated by hydraulic cylinders with transducers position which allows each  group ( composed of coal hopper, screw feeder, telescope, lids cleaner and lifter and charging hole’s frame cleaner) to be available to move, with values measured and pre-set, aligning itself to the position of the charging hole, with a displacement about ± 50 mm flows along of the main axes X and Y compared to the theoretical position.

This solution is applied individually for each charge group, even if the misalignments of the oven charging holes are differents.

The system not only makes a position compensation with respect to the axes X and Y, the system it is also available to make a compensation of any altimetric differences of holes. The vertical position of oven charging holes must not exceed ± 50 mm compared to the theoretical position.

Thanks to this device it is possible:

  • To adhere telescopes perfectly on the charging hole’s frames, to obtain an excellent loading;
  • To extract lids  perfectly centered on axis;
  • To perform cleaning of lids in ideal conditions;
  • To perform cleaning of  the charging hole’s frame, by cleaning tools perfectly centered to obtain an excellent result;
  • To perform automatically sealing of covers in ideal conditions where the cast rings are perfectly in the line with the location to seal and especially both parties (lid and frame) are fully cleaned by incrustation

Charging car JPEG   

System ( with patent application) moving operation of all devices 




O.M.E.V. S.r.l.
Officina Meccanica Elettrica Vadese
Via Piave, 122 | 17047 Vado Ligure (SV) | Italy
Tel. +39 019 880162 +39 019 884091
Fax +39 019 883977









SCOPE 21 – Next Generation Coke Making Technology


Research and development of new cokemaking process (SCOPE21) was conducted in Japan from 1994 to 2003 by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF). Pilot plant scale test of SCOPE21 process was conducted successfully and targets of the project were confirmed. SCOPE21-type new coke oven battery was constructed at Nippon Steel Oita works and the operation of new coke plant started in 2008. The coke production capacity is 1 million ton per year. At present, high quality coke has been produced in this process using high blending ratio (over 50%) of non- or slightly-caking coal.