Characterising coals for coke production and assessing coke

by Pierre Jordan

A project report submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment,
University of the Witwatersrand, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree
of Masters of Science in Engineering.
Johannesburg, 2006

Predicting coke quality based on coal petrography, rheorogy and coke petrography



Click to access 39664974.pdf

Petrological characterization of coal: an evolving science

by J.M. Richards*, G. Naude*, S.J. Theron*, and M.McCullum*

* Mineral Processing, Metallurgy Research and Development, Exxaro Resources Ltd., Pretoria, South Africa.
© The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2013. ISSN 2225-6253. Paper received Sep. 2013; revised paper received Oct. 2013.

For most of the 20th century optical petrography has been the primary petrological and mineralogical tool used to characterize coal.
The development of quantitative SEM-based techniques, e.g. QEMSCAN®, for coal began only about a decade ago. The application of these techniques for coal lagged behind other commodities, but they are currently being developed with the aim to provide ‘one
complete analysis’ for coal. Quantitative SEM-based techniques are
supplemented by quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Recent indications are that these more modern techniques cannot replace the ‘standard’ petrographic and chemical evaluations, but rather complement them where and when required. The great advantage of quantitative SEM-based techniques is that they are very rapid, with the result that large volumes of samples can be processed on a routine basis. This is ideal for coal type identification, since theresults can be used in the creation of ‘intelligent’ composites. This can lead to the more speedy evaluation of coal deposits by reducing the number of samples on which detailed metallurgical and characterization test work is required, without an increase in the overall statistical error of the resource model.
Coal petrography, however, remains important for the prediction of the coking characteristics of certain coals and coal products. As a consequence it is therefore important that any coal laboratory be able to produce data with confidence. This requires strict quality control and assurance protocols that adhere to international standards.


Click to access v113n11p865.pdf

Installation of the Pressure Regulated Oven (PROven) system at existing coke plants

by F. Huhn, F. Krebber, K. Überschär, J. Kühn-Gajdzik (ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions, Germany)


By application of the pressure regulation system PROven traditional coke oven batteries can be
operated nearly emission free. Therefore even the most stringent environmental requirements can be met.



Click to access pressure_regulated_oven_proven__uhde_estad_summary.pdf



The world, and especially European iron and steel producers, need a paradigm change to
be prepared for the future, to comply with environmental regulations, specifically on
carbon footprint reduction, and to cope with raw material availabilities and final product
qualities. There is a trend in the steelmaking industry, as part of the decarbonization of
Europe’s economy and the perceived future for other countries worldwide, towards hydrogen
(H2)-based iron reduction as a long-term substitute for carbon-based processes.



Click to access HYL_News_-_December_2018.pdf


Introduction to direct reduction technology and outlook for its use

by  F. Muscolino, A. Martinis, M. Ghiglione, P. Duarte

The gas-based direct reduction technology is the process used to convert iron ore, either in the formof pellets or lumps, into metallic iron by means of reducing gases and without the need of melting.
This technology was born in the early 50s in Mexico and has experienced increasing popularity due to the properties of the final product, commonly called Direct Reduced Iron (DRI), as virgin source for high quality steel production through electrical steelmaking, as an alternative to low residual scrap.
In addition, the reduced environmental footprint compared to the traditional integrated route (blast furnace coupled with basic oxygen furnace) makes the direct reduction the most promising alternative for iron production in countries where very restrictive regulations on emissions are applied, with, for example, the possibility to capture and commercialize the CO2
as by-product. The use of DRI can be also effective in decreasing emissions in existing plants.
Its addition directly in the BF/BOF burden allows to increase productivity
and to decrease emissions by reducing significantly coke and sinter consumption.
Latest installations of new direct reduction plants are returning remarkable results in term
of product quality and integration with steelmaking.




Click to access Muscolino.pdf

SCOPE 21 – Next Generation Coke Making Technology

Research and development of new cokemaking process (SCOPE21) was conducted in Japan from 1994 to 2003 by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF). Pilot plant scale test of SCOPE21 process was conducted successfully and targets of the project were confirmed. SCOPE21-type new coke oven battery was constructed at Nippon Steel Oita works and the operation of new coke plant started in 2008. The coke production capacity is 1 million ton per year. At present, high quality coke has been produced in this process using high blending ratio (over 50%) of non- or slightly-caking coal.



Coal weathering study to predict oxidation, improve coke properties and protect coke oven operation (COWEST)

European Union Publications

Reports, studies, information booklets, magazines and other publications from the EU institutions and other bodies




Interesting study and research reports:



Report date: 11th March 2015


Zantow Environmental Consulting Services  was contracted by ArcelorMittal to conduct an independent Compliance Audit.
The methodology followed for conducting the compliance assessment audit  is detailed described and also conclusion and recomandations.



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